Prambanan Temple or Roro Jonggrang is the largest Hindu temple complex in Indonesia, which was built in the 9th century AD. This temple is dedicated to Trimurti, the three main Hindu gods are Brahma the creator god, the god Vishnu as the preserver, and Shiva the god of destruction. Based on the inscription Siwagrha original name of this temple complex is Siwagrha (Sanskrit which means house of Shiva), and indeed in garbagriha (main hall) of the temple is the statue of Shiva Mahadeva dwells as high as three meters which showed that Lord Shiva in this temple are preferred. This temple complex is located subdistrict Prambanan (Sleman) and Prambanan subdistrict (Klaten) approximately 17 kilometers northeast of Yogyakarta, 50 kilometers southwest of Surakarta and 120 km south of Semarang, just on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta. It is very unique,
Prambanan Temple is located in the administrative region Bokoharjo village, Prambanan, Sleman, while the entrance of the Prambanan temple complex located in the administrative region Tlogo village, Prambanan subdistrict (Klaten).
This temple is including the UNESCO World Heritage Site, the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia, and one of the most beautiful temples in Southeast Asia. The architecture of the building is tall and slender shaped according to the Hindu architecture in general the main Shiva temple as the temple has reached a height of 47 meters in the center of the complex cluster of towering temples smaller. As one of the grandest temples in Southeast Asia, Prambanan temple is the main attraction of tourists visit from all over the world. According Siwagrha inscriptions, this temple was built around the year 850 AD by Rakai Pikatan, and continue to be developed and expanded by Balitung Maha Sambu, during Medang Mataram kingdom.
Prambanan name, derived from the name of the village where the temple stands, allegedly a dialect name change Jawadari The Brahman Hindu theological term that means the Supreme Brahman is Brahman or the highest and greatest eternal reality which can not be described, which is often equated with the concept of God in Hinduism. Another opinion considers the Brahman may refer to the heyday of this temple which formerly filled by the brahmins. Another opinion put forward the notion that the name Prambanan comes from the root word in Javanese “mban” meaningful, bear or bear the task. refers to the Hindu god who took on the task to organize and run the harmony of the universe. The original name of this temple complex is the name of the Hindu Sanskrit; Siwagrha (House of Shiva) or Siwalaya (Natural Shiva), based on the bertarikh Siwagrha Inscription 778 Saka (856 AD). Trinity is glorified in this temple complex with three main temples glorify Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu. But Shiva Mahadeva who occupy space in the main temple of Shiva is the god most glorified in this temple complex.
Construction of a Temple
Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple and the grandest ever built in the ancient Javanese kingdom of Hindu temple construction was started by Rakai Pikatan as a rival Buddhist temple of Borobudur and Sewu temples are also located not far from Prambanan. Some historians long suspected that the construction of the great temple to mark the Hindu Sanjaya familys return to power of Java, it is related to the theory of twin dynasty different competing beliefs; namely Sanjaya dynasty Hindu and Buddhist Sailendra dynasty. Surely, with the construction of this temple marks that Hinduism Saiwa back the support of the royal family, having previously tended to be more supportive of Sailendra dynasty Buddhist Mahayana.
In this inscription mentioned that during the construction of the temple Siwagrha in progress, carried out public works also change the water system to move the flow of the river near the temple. The river in question is Opak river that flows from north to south along the western side of the temple complex of Prambanan. Historians suspect that the original flow of the river curved turn eastward, and was considered too close to the temple so that erosion of the river can be dangerous to the construction of the temple. Water system project is done by creating a new river channel cut by the river curved north-south axis along the west wall outside the temple complex. Used original stream then backfilled to provide land for the construction of wider row ancillary temples (temple guards, or accompanying temple).
Togel Online – Some archaeologists believe that the Shiva statue in garbhagriha (main hall) in the temple of Shiva as the main temple is a statue of the king Balitung embodiment, as his posthumous statue pedharmaan. This building complex periodically continue to be refined by the kings of Mataram Medang the next, like a king Daksha and Tulodong, and expanded by building hundreds of additional temples around the main temple. Because of the grandeur of this temple, Prambanan temple serves as the great kingdom of Mataram, where a main important royal ceremonies. At the height of its power, historians suspect that hundreds of Brahmin priest and his disciples gathered and inhabit the outer court of the temple is to study the Vedas and performing various Hindu rituals and ceremonies. While the center of the kingdom, or the kingdom of Mataram supposedly located somewhere near Prambanan, The Plain Kewu.
Neglected Temple Building
Around the year 930-an, capital of the kingdom moved to East Java by MPU Sindok, who founded the Wangsa Isyana. The cause of the moves power center is not known for certain. However, very likely due to the great eruption of Mount Merapi, towering about 20 kilometers north of Prambanan temple. Other possible causes are wars and power struggles. After the transfer of the capital city, Prambanan temple began neglected and not maintained, so that the temple slowly begin to deteriorate and crumble. The temple building totally collapsed allegedly due to severe earthquake in the 16th century. Although no longer the center of Hindu religion and worship, the temple was still recognizable and known to exist by the people who inhabit the villages around Java. The temples and statues of Durga in the main building of this temple inspires Javanese folklore legend Rara Jonggrang. After the split of the Sultanate of Mataram in 1755, the ruins of the temple and the nearby river Opak, a sign of demarcation between the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Solo).
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Rediscovery of Temple Building
Local residents in the Java community around the temple already know the existence of this temple. But they do not know the background of real history, who is the king and the royal what has built this monument. As a result of imagination, the local people creating local fairy tale to explain the origin of the existence of these temples; colored with a fantastic story about a giant king, thousands of temples built by the jinn and Evils spirits in just one night, and the beautiful princess who is cursed into a statue. The legend of Prambanan temple known as Roro Jonggrang story. In 1733, the temple was discovered by CA. Lons a Dutch nationality. The temple attracted worldwide attention when during the British occupation of Java. When was Colin Mackenzie, a surveyor subordinate Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, found this temple. Although Sir Thomas subsequently ordered further investigations, these temple ruins remained neglected until decades. No serious excavation conducted during the 1880s that unfortunately even fertilize practice looting and stone carved temples. Later in 1855 Jan Willem IJzerman start cleaning and move some rocks and soil from the temple. A few moments later Isaac Groneman perform large-scale demolition and temple stones were piled haphazardly along the River Opak. The statues and reliefs taken by Dutch citizens and used as garden ornaments, while the natives use the stones for building materials and house foundation.
Restoration Temple Building
The restoration began in 1918, but the real serious efforts began in the 1930s. In 1902-1903, Theodoor van Erp keep parts that are prone to collapse. In the years 1918-1926, followed by the Bureau of Antiquities (Oudheidkundige Dienst) under PJ Perquin a more systematic manner according to the rules of archeology. As known predecessors did removal and demolition of thousands of rock carelessly without thinking about the existence of the restoration effort back. In 1926 De Haan continued until his death in 1930. In 1931 was replaced by Ir. V.R. van Romondt up in 1942 and then handed over to the leadership of the renovation was the son of indonesia and it continued until 1993.
Ongoing renovation efforts carried out even today. The restoration of the Shiva temple is the main temple complex was completed in 1953 and inaugurated by the first President of the Republic of indonesia Sukarno. Many of the temples were renovated, using new stones, because many original stones were stolen or reused elsewhere. A temple will be renovated only when at least 75% of the original stones are still there. Therefore, many small temples are not rebuilt and only looked foundation course. Today, the temple was included in the World Heritage Site protected by UNESCO, is granted UNESCO status in 1991. Nowadays, some of the temples of Prambanan being renovated, to repair the damage caused by the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. Earthquake has damaged several buildings and statues.
Contemporary Events in The Environment Temple Building
In the early 1990s the government move markets and villages spread wildly around the temple, displacing the township areas, and rice fields around the temple, and restore it into archaeological park. The archaeological park covers a large area on the edge of Yogyakarta-Solo highway on the south side, covering the whole Prambanan complex, including Temple Barn, Bubrah temple, and Sewu in the north. In 1992 the Government of Indonesia state-owned company, Limited PT Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan, and Ratu Boko. The business entity in charge of managing a garden tour in the ancient Borobudur, Prambanan, Ratu Boko, as well as the surrounding area. Prambanan is one of the famous tourist attraction in Indonesia visited by many tourists in domestic or foreign tourists.
Just across the river Opak built stage and theater complex that is routinely held Trimurti dance performances of the Ramayana. Trimurti open stage is located right opposite the temple on the west bank of the river Opak with background highlighted Prambanan Temple light. Open stage is only used in the dry season, while in the rainy season, the show moved on stage covered. Javanese Wayang Ramayana dance is the valuable tradition of Javanese court which has hundreds of years old, is usually performed in the palace and began to be shown at Prambanan at the time of the full moon since the 1960s. Since then Prambanan has become a tourist attraction and archaeological culture in Indonesia.
After a massive restoration in the 1990s, Prambanan is also back at the center of Hindu worship in Java. The revival of religious values Prambanan is because there are quite a lot of Hindu society, both immigrants from Bali or residents who returned Hindu-Javanese who live in Yogyakarta, Klaten and surrounding areas. Each year Hindus of the province of Central Java and Yogyakarta gathered at Prambanan temple, to hold the ceremony on the holy day of Galungan, Tawur Kesanga, and Nyepi.
On May 27, 2006 an earthquake with a strength of 5.9 on the Richter scale (while the United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude of 6.2 on the Richter scale) hit Bantul and surrounding areas. The earthquake caused severe damage to many buildings and mortality in the population around. The quake centered on the Opak tectonic faults in the direction of the river valley near the Prambanan Opak. One of the buildings that were badly damaged Prambanan temple complex, especially the Brahma Temple. Early photos show that even though the building complex remains intact, damage is significant. Large rock fragments, including panel-carved panels and waterless wajra fell and scattered on the ground. These temples had closed from tourist visits to the damage and danger of collapse can be calculated. Yogyakarta Archaeological Hall states that it can take many months to determine the extent of the damage caused by this earthquake. A few weeks later, in 2006, the site was re-opened for tourist visits. In 2008, there were a number of Indonesian travelers 856 029 and 114 951 foreign tourists visited Prambanan. On January 6, 2009 Nandi temple restoration is complete. In 2009, the space enclosed within the main temple of tourists visit for security reasons.
Temple Complex at Prambanan Temple Area
The entrance to the building complex is located on the four corners of the wind direction, but this is the direction toward the building to the east, the temples main entrance is the east gate. Prambanan temple complex consists of:
- 3 Trimurti temple: the temple of Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma
- 3 Wahana Temple : Nandi temple, Garuda, and Geese
- 2 Apit Temple: located between rows of Trimurti temples and temples rides on the north side and south
- 4 Kelir Temple : located at the 4 corners of the wind just inside the entrance to the inner courtyard or the core zone
- 4 Patok Temple : 4 located in the corner of the page or the core zone
- 224 Perwara Temple : arranged in four concentric rows the number of rows of the inner temple to outer: 44, 52, 60, and 68.
So there are a total of 240 temples in Prambanan complex. Originally there were 240 big and small temples in Prambanan temple complex. But now only 18 temples, the main temple is 8, and 8 small temples in the core zone and 2 perwara temple. Many ancillary temples that have not been restored, ancillary 224 temples of which only two have been restored, which left only a pile of stones scattered about. Prambanan temple complex consists of three zones; The first is the outer zone, second the middle zone that is made up of hundreds of temples, the third is in a zone which is a zone of the holiest places eight main temples and eight small shrines. Prambanan complex cross section of the plan is based on a square of land consisting of three sections or zones, each zone is restricted page wall stones.
The outer zone is marked with a square fence on each side along the 390 meters, with the orientation of the Northeast Southwest. Unless the remaining southern gate, another gate and wall sections of this temple has been missing a lot. Functions of the outside of this page is not known; possibility is sacred park land, or dormitory complex Brahmin and his students. Perhaps the first building that stood in the outer courtyard is made of wood, so it had rotted and was left destroyed. hasil togel singapura
Prambanan Temple is one of the largest Hindu temple in Southeast Asia apart from Angkor Wat. Three main temple called Trimurti and dedicated main kepadantiga Trimurti gods: Shiva the Destroyer, Vishnu the Preserver and Brahma the Creator. Shiva in this temple complex are preferred and more exalted than the other two god Trimurti. Shiva temple as well as the main building of the largest and highest, 47 meters tall.